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胡晶晶

  胡晶晶,现在某500强企业从事项目和项目集管理工作。PMP,Prince 2 Practitioner,ITIL V3 Foundation,信息系统项目管理师,(美国)项目管理协会(PMI)会员、特约讲师,北京项目管理协会会员、特约讲师,《PMBOK指南》第5版、第6版审校委员。


  出版《全能项目经理的12堂必修课》《全能项目经理工具箱》《技术的趋势——商业颠覆、创新与执行》三本译作,在《项目管理评论》杂志上发表多篇译文。运营项目管理微信公众号“项目管理思考(PM_Insights)”,受到业界好评。

敏捷地应用敏捷

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2018年01月08日   

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胡晶晶 译


  如敏捷方法这样的迭代方法也有一定之规,而魅力在于结构中的灵活性。


  请看这篇来自杰西·菲威尔(Jesse Fewell), CST, PMI-ACP, PMP, 特约撰稿人的文章。


  如果你已经尝试使用敏捷方法,但是效果不佳,可能需要跳出圈外思考问题。虽然,敏捷方法可以解决项目中的很多问题,但是,它仍然需要项目经理敏锐的目光,以便在各种规则和原理中游刃有余,而不是反被束缚。我们一起来看看以下的三种情况。如果,灵活运用敏捷的规则,项目将会获得更大的收益。

  An iterative approach like agile has certain rules. But the beauty is that flexibility is built into the structure.

  BY JESSE FEWELL, CST, PMI-ACP, PMP, CONTRIBUTING EDITOR

  If you’ve tried using agile approaches and it’s not going well, it might be time to break out of the box. While agile provides many fixes for project problems, it still requires a project manager’s discerning eye to sift between rules and principles. Take a look at these three situations where a project might fare better by bending some agile rules.

  

特色 vs. 原则


  在变更管理的过程中,细节是非常关键的。人们期待这个过程是琐碎的。在由旧转新的变化中,项目经理精明地准备核对单、各种策略和指引。但在应用敏捷方法引导这些细节的过程中,请注意:指引只是指引。例如:


  假如你听说“敏捷方法说早晨9:00是最佳每日站会时间”,请注意,这只是鼓励一致的、可靠的每日互动的一种可能的方法。


  假如你听说“敏捷方法说所有需求必须以用户故事的方法表达”,请注意,这只是代表客户发声的多种方式中的一种。


  假如你听说“我们每月向运营部门交付一次增量内容”,请注意,这只是适用于某一特定项目的尽早而频繁交付商业价值的方法。


  每一种敏捷技术都是在某一固定原则下操作,而同时,又要有个性化和灵活性的空间。调整敏捷方法,以使其最好地服务于当前的项目。


  PECULIARITIES VS. PRINCIPLES

  When working in change management, details are very important. People crave details. To navigate the transition from the old to the new, project managers wisely make checklists, policies and guidelines. However, when using agile to guide these details, keep in mind that it’s just that: a guide. For instance:

  If you hear, “Agile says 9 a.m. is the best time for the daily standup,” know that is only one possible way to encourage consistent, reliable daily interactions.

  If you hear, “Agile says all requirements must be expressed as user stories,” know that is one of several ways to represent the customer.

  If you hear, “Agile says we deliver an increment to operations every month,” know that is but one particular project’s approach to delivering business value early and often.

  Every agile technique is designed to have a fixed principle with room for customization and flexibility. Adapt agile so it works best for the project at hand.

  Starting a project aggressively also means being ready to solve issues as the team executes the project.


切勿等待


  将宝贵的实践耽误在寻找一种应用敏捷方法的完美方式可能会让你措施占据竞争优势的良机,因为其他组织非常想通过实施各种项目而捷足先登。应用敏捷方法的一大关键优势是:项目可以在尚未具备一项事无巨细的项目计划之前开展工作。例如:


  询问是否组建项目团队的一些工作可以远程开展,而不是等待专用设备。


  评估当前的项目团队是否已经可以开展某些任务,而不是等待全员就位。


  给需求排列优先级、分派并基于高阶能力开始工作,然后,随着时间推移而不断开发余下的任务,而不是从一开始就对每条需求精雕细琢。


  敏捷方法的作家吉姆·海史密斯(Jim Highsmith)说得最好。当被问及如何制止持续不断延期多个项目的势头时,他说,“早点开始啊!”你花在等待万事俱备的时间越长,你的项目延期的时间就可能越长。


  NO NEED TO WAIT

  Spending valuable time figuring out the perfect way to roll out agile could wind up costing you the competitive advantage, as other organizations are willing to get a head start on projects. A key benefit of agile is that projects can begin with a less-than-complete plan. For example:

  Instead of waiting for a dedicated facility, ask if some of the project setup can be performed remotely.

  Instead of waiting for the project team to be fully staffed, assess whether the current team members can begin working on certain tasks.

  Instead of crafting every requirement at the very beginning, prioritize, assign and work on the high-level capabilities first, then develop the remaining tasks as time goes on.

  Agile author Jim Highsmith probably said it best. When asked for advice about how to stop having consistently late projects, he replied, “Start them sooner.” The longer you wait for everything to be just right, the later your project delivery may be.

  

随时准备就绪


  逐渐开始项目活动还意味着项目团队一边执行项目活动,一边为解决问题随时蓄势待发。将每个问题当做识别改善项目流程的解决方案的一次机遇。例如:


  如果产品负责人太忙了,以至于没有时间参与项目,那么,请求他授权一名分析师来管理干系人,并提供策略上的指导。


  如果团队中的一位专家总在各个项目间被争来争去,解决方案可能是在每个项目中培养一个人来协助他。


  如果团队成员分散在几个不同的时区,定期的“集中时间”的团队会议需要严格限制。这使得工作得以更好的排序。会议更加专注。


  刻板地应用敏捷方法可能会掩盖掉一切你想要获得的收益。请记住,保持灵活——并针对项目需要裁剪敏捷方法——将有助于推进项目工作。


  ALWAYS BE PREPARED

  Starting a project aggressively also means being ready to solve issues as the team executes the project. Use each issue as an opportunity to find a solution that improves the project process. For example:

  If the product owner is too busy to engage in the project, ask him or her to authorize an analyst to manage stakeholders and offer tactical guidance as needed.

  If an expert on the team is needed across several projects, a solution might be training one person from each project to assist him or her.

  If team members are located across several time zones, limit meetings to fixed “collaboration hours,” which will help work get prioritized and focused.

  Being rigid with agile could undermine all the benefits you’re trying to get. Remember that remaining flexible—and tailoring agile to the project’s needs—can help move things forward.


作者简介:

  杰西·菲威尔(JesseFewell), CST, PMI-ACP, PMP。PMI敏捷实践社区创始人,并且是《项目管理知识体系指南软件分册》核心团队之一。

责任编辑:王兴钊

标签:敏捷
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